Posted by: Dawud Israel | March 8, 2010

Pious Words from the Sufi Shaykh that made Imam Ahmad faint: Selections from Risala al-Mustarshideen


Bismillah, alhamdulillah, wa salat wa salam ala Rasulullah

Al-Khatib in Tarikh Baghdad, Ibn al-Jawzi in Manaqib Ahmad, al-Dhahabi in the Siyar and the Mizan and others related that Imam Ahmad wept to the point that he passed out upon hearing the discourse of the Sufi Shaykh, al-Harith al-Muhasibi for the first time. Al-Dhahabi comments: “The chain of this report is sound, and yet I can’t believe this on the part of Imam Ahmad!”


So who was this Sufi Shaykh? And what was so powerful about his words that Imam Ahmad (rahimullah) wept so hard that he fainted?

Read below for yourself from these select excerpts from Imam Zaid’s translation and commentary on Risala al-Mustarshideen (Treatise for the Seekers of Guidance). I highly suggest you purchase it and take the time to read through it! Alhamdulillah, Imam Zaid draws from a countless number of sources, from hadith to sayings of the Sahabas, Salaf, wives of the Prophet salallahu alayhi wasalam, Sufis, and drawing from scholars such as Ibn Qayyim, Ibn Rajab, Imam Shawkani, Imam Nawawi, Imam Ahmad, Imam al-Jurjani, Imam ash-Shafi’i, Imam Ghazali, Imam al-Marwadi and many more.


Indented and bolded are from Imam Muhasibi, the rest is commentary from Imam Zaid commentary/notes



He was born into a wealthy family. However, his father was a Qadarite, or one who rejected God’s ordainment as being the ultimate determining factor in human actions. Because of this, he broke relations with his father and urged him to divorce is mother, as in al-Muhasibis view his father had left Islam. He would subsequently move from his fathers house, and reject the considerable inheritance his father left for him upon his death, thereby exposing himself to a life of poverty. His stance demonstrates the depth of his personal convictions, and his firm belief that his father was astray.

The fulcrum of Imam al-Muhasibi’s moral psychology is God-consciousness as a phenomenon that manifests itself in purposeful actions. As the locus of God-consciousness is the heart, a human being aspiring to live a righteous life mu first cleanse and condition his heart so that it is a fitting receptacle for the moral messages that will then allow it to properly direct the limbs. The centrality of God consciousness in his schemes augmented by his view of asceticism. He saw detachment is necessary if we are to truly know and serve God, for the world, when overly indulged in, prevents us from His service annd veils us from His knowledge. Over indulgence in the world also empowers both our lower desires and Satan in their struggle to prevent us from realizing true servitude to God. It is only when our hearts are detached from the world that we gain mastery over Satan and our lower desires and are thus able to fully serve and worship God.

If one studies al-Muhasibi’s Risala one will find little difference between its style and that exhibited by Imam Ibn Taymiyya in works such as’his commentary on Shaykh ‘Abdul Qadir Jilanis, Futuh alGhayb (Openings to the Unseen Realities),’ Amrad al-Qulub wa Shifa’uha (The Diseases of the Hearts and Their Cures) or similar writings. Likewise, works such as Imam Ibn Qayyim al-Jawziyya’s, Kitab al-Ruh (The Book of the Spirit), Madarij al-Salikin (The Upward Leading Paths of the Spiritual Travelers), and many of his other works, differ little from Imam al-Muhasibi’s Risala. Sections of some of Ibn Rajab al-Hanbali’s works, such as Lata’ifal-Ma’arif fi ma li Mawasim al-A’mm min al-Wadha’if {The Subtleties of Knowledge concerning what Each Season Contains of Religious Duties), and Jami’ al-Ulum w’al-Hikam (The Compendium of Knowledge and Wisdom), employ most of the elements utilized by al-Muhasibi so effectively in many of his works.

SELECTED SAYINGS OF IMAM AL-MUHASIBI

‘One who rectifies his inner self with an awareness of God’s surveillance and sincerity; God adorns his outer self with devotional acts and adherence to the prophetic way {Sunnah)”

If half of humanity were to come towards me [in friendship], I would find no conviviality in that. And if the other half were to turn away from me I would feel no alienation in their distancing themselves from me.”


He said concerning the hadith, “The best of sustenance is that which suffices.” “That is the basic provision, which comes day to day, and you do not worry about the sustenance of tomorrow.”

“Anyone divested from the world finds his divestment in proportion to his knowledge, his knowledge in proportion to his intellect, and his intellect in proportion to the strength of his faith.

“Knowledge bequeaths fear, divestment from the world bequeaths comfort, and gnosis bequeaths self criticism.

‘The basis of obedience is impeccability. The basis of consciousness is God-consciousness. The basis of Godconsciousness is [balancing between] fear and hope. and the basis of those two is knowledge of the promise and the threat.’

“Good character is bearing abuse, rarely becoming angry, a pleasant face, and sweet speech.”

“Everything has an essence. The essence of a human being is his intellect, and the essence of his intellect is patience.

If you do not hear the caller to God, how can you answer his call?

“The oppressor is remorseful even if people praise him. The oppressed is safe even if people condemn him. The content person is wealthy even if he owns [plenty].”

“One who does not thank God for a blessing has called for its eradication.”

“The best person is one who does not a! allow his Hereafter to preoccupy him from his worldly affair nor does he allow his worldly affair to preoccupy him from his Hereafter”

“The tribulation of the seeker of the world is the idling of his heart from remembrance of the Hereafter.

‘Whoever emerges from the authority of fear into the haughtiness of security [from God’s decree], the paths the places of [his] ruin have been greatly expanded.”

People differ in worldly divestment in proportion to the soundness of [their] intellects, and the purity of [their] hearts. The most virtuous are the most intelligent and those who best understand God.’


More excerpts and quotes:

This is what Imam al-Muhasibi means when he urges us to believe in those obscure scriptural statements. One of the best positions concerning such verses is conveyed to us from Imam Shafi’i. It is related that he said, “I believe in God and in what comes to us from God as God intended it. And I believe in the Messenger of God and in what comes to us from the Messenger of God as he intended it.’

Be ever mindful of the commandments and prohibitions of God. The Muslim is “one who keeps other Muslims safe from his hand and his tongue, and the believer is the one who keeps all people safe from his wickedness.”

Rely upon God, and you will be amongst the elite. ‘Ubada bin al-Samit said to his son, “O My son! Despair of the idea that people can help you in any way, for this is true wealth. Beware of craving [people’s possessions] and seeking their help to meet your needs, for this is true poverty.

Imam Ahmad said that the happiest of his days was when he woke up and found nothing in his cabinets. The cell phone helps to eliminate the ghayb to instantaneously find out where someone is or what they are doing. Global communications and transportation networks bring our food from the far corners of the earth so we do not have to rely on God to bring the rains that will irrigate our local crops. The cognitive frames that allow us to deal with religious belief are rooted in our experience. When our everyday experiences do not reinforce fundamental religious lessons and concepts, we have to work extra hard to enliven those meanings in our hearts.


Constantly remember God and you will obtain nearness to Him.

Imam Ibn Qayyim al-Jawziyya mentions over one hundred benefits of God’s remembrance in his book, At-wahil al-Sayyib (The Copious Downpour). We will mention a few of them. He says: It repulses, represses and breaks the resolve of Satan. It pleases the Most Merciful. It removes concern and gloom from the heart. It brings joy, happiness and delight to the heart. It strengthens the heart and the body.  It illuminates the face and the heart.  It attracts sustenance. It envelopes the remembering servant in reverence, sweetness and radiance. It engenders love, which is the very spirit of Islam. It brings awareness of God’s surveillance. It encourages repentance. It brings nearness to God. It opens one of the great doors of gnosis. It brings about reverence, and veneration of his Lord.  It is coupled with God’s remembrance of him, “Remember Me and I will remember you.” [2:158]

in another one of his compilations, Zad al-Ma’ad, Imam Ibn Qayyim mentions the state of the Prophet, peace upon him, as it relates to his remembrance of God:

The Prophet, peace upon him, was the most perfect of creation in his remembrance of God. All of his speech, prohibitions, and his legislating for his community were all forms of remembrance of God. […] His thanking Him for His blessings and graces, his glorifying Him, his enumerating His praises were all forms of God’s remembrance. His invocation, his supplication, his longing for the divine and his reverent fear of Him mbrance of God. His silent and tranquil moments were filled with the remembrance of God in his heart. His remembrance of God encompassed all of his states at all times. His remembrance of God flowed with every breath—standing, sitting or reclining.’

Abu Dharr, mentioned, “Work as if you see [God] and consider yourself among the dead.”

We have previously commented on this expression which is taken directly from the hadith of the Prophet, peace upon him. To add to what we have mentioned earlier, know that your death has been ordained. Imagine the whole of humanity standing shoulder to shoulder in one line and then marching forward in total darkness. In front of each and every one of us is a deep hole at varying distances and none of us know when we will drop into it. The darkness is this world and the distance between us and those holes are our life spans. We do not know when, but sooner or later we are all going to fall into the hole in front of us. That hole is our grave.

Know that a brief act that enriches you is better than a grand act that is a source of oppression.


For example, if we frequently watch television, we will always find advertisements for programs that interest us. My initial intention was to watch one hour. During that hour, I saw an advertisement for another extremely interesting program that is two hours long. So I watched the second program. Since I stayed up at night an extra two hours watching the second program, I have to take a nap after Fajr when I normally read the Qur’an for half an hour. Hence, it would have been far better for my soul if I had passed up the three hours of television, gone to bed on time, and then read the Qur’an for half an hour.
(Dawud’s note, we can call this phenomenon: salah time displacement)


It has been related in a hadith, “Relieve yourself from the concerns ot the world as much as you possibly can. For verily, one who makes the world his ultimate concern God multiplies his concerns, and will set his poverty up before his very eyes. One who makes the Hereafter his greatest concern, God will focus his concerns, and make his wealth in his heart. No servant approaches God with his heart, honesty and truthfulness, except that God makes the hearts of the believers inclined toward Him with mercy and love.”


Mirrors another hadith: “Whoever makes the world his greatest concern, God will divide him between his various concerns and make his poverty self-evident. Furthermore, he will only get from the world what has been ordained for him. As for one who makes the Hereafter his greatest concern, God gives him focus in his affairs, places his light in his heart, and the world will be undeniably subservient to him.”

God mentions, by way of encouraging us towards lofty actions, Is the reward for good ever anything other than good? (55:60)

Once a single breath issues forth, it is gone, never to be reclaimed.

Make the world a vehicle.

Imam ash-Shafi’i is reported to have said:

God has perspicacious, discerning servants. They divorce themselves from the world, fearing its tribulations.
They consider its state and when they realize that it is not a permanent abode for any living creature.
They approach it as if it were a vast sea, and they take, righteous deeds as their ships to traverse it.

Avoid the ambushes of the enemy.

On (7:16-17) Ibn ‘Abbas mentions concerning the various directions from which the assault of Satan will come:

Then I will assault them from in front, “I will cause them to doubt the veracity of the Hereafter.” .. from behind, “I will make them excessively covetous in their worldly pursuits.” .. .from their right, “I will confuse them in their religious life.” …and their left. “I will make sin alluring to them.’

Beware of the attacks of your whims (Hawa)!

Imam al-Jurjani, in his compilation, al-Ta’rifat, defines “Hawa” as, “The whimsical desires of the soul for the delights emanating from the carnal lusts in opposition to what the has sanctioned.”  The Prophet, peace upon him, has warned, “Your most dangerous enemy is the unrefined soul between your two sides.”

‘Umar bin ‘Abdul Aziz mentioned, “Whoever acts without proper knowledge, what he corrupts is greater than what he rectifies.”

The Messenger of God, peace upon him, mentioned, “The status of a servant with God is commensurate to the status of God with the servant.” That is commensurate to the fear, knowledge and gnosis he possesses of Him.


Know that whoever gives preference to God, God prefers him.
He mentions in the Qur’an, “O Believers, If you help God, He will help you.” (47:7)

Guard your intellect by adopting the way of clement people.


What is the relationship between the intellect and clemency? Clement people do not become angry. Nothing removes the intellect faster than anger.


The human being is created from clay. Clay is malleable and becomes firm over time. These are two characteristics of sound intellect, it is malleable to sound guidance, and it matures over time. Controlling anger preserves the strength and distinction of the human being, his intellect. One of the greatest keys to controlling anger is bearing the abuse of people.


Ibn Rajab al-Hanbali mentioned two critical things are involved in the process of controlling anger:

The first thing intended here is an implicit command to engage in those things that cultivate good character such as generosity, sharing, forbearance, shyness, humility, bearing abuse, refraining from harm people, overlooking slights and pardoning others. suppressing anger, having a cheerful face and pleasant countenance, and similar beautiful characteristics. When the soul adopts these character traits and they come second nature it automatically wards off anger when it arises. The second thing is not acting in a state of anger. Rather, you should struggle against your soul to get it to leave off implementing and acting on the demands of one’s anger. “Verily, when anger possesses a human being it becomes the basis for his commandments and prohibitions.’

Let patience accompany you in every situation.


Ibn Qayyim al-Jawziyya mentions three basic manifestations of patience:

Patience involved with implementing the divine orders and acts of obedience untn mey are conveyed; patience involved in avoiding the prohibitions and acts that conflict with the divine law in order that one does not perpetrate them; and patience involved with bearing the hardships and disasters that unfold with the divine decree in order that one does not become angered by them.

Constantly undertake those acts you would wish to meet God with.


Prophet, peace upon him, counseled ‘Uqba bin ‘Amir, “Join relations with those who cut them with you, give to those who deny you, and ignore those who oppress you.”

He watches over himself for the sake of God.


Imam Ibn Juzayy al-Kalbi in his commentary on the following Qur’anic passage. “Surely, God ever watches over you.” (4:1)
He says:
“When the servant actualizes the meaning of this and similar verses he achieves the station that involves the conscious awareness of God’s observing him {Muraqaba). It is a noble station whose foundation is knowledge and a particular state of being. It subsequently yields two additional states of being. As for knowledge, it is the awareness of the servant that God overlooking him, gazing upon him, witnessing all of his actions, listening to his every utterance, cognizant of every thought that comes to his mind. As for the particular state of being, it is his heart being constantly aware of the aforementioned knowledge to such an extent that it overwhelms him. He is never heedless of it. The knowledge is insufficient without this particular state.


When both this knowledge and state of being are attained they lead to an enhanced ontological state tor the Companions of the Right Hand. This enhanced state is shyness before God. It necessarily brings about leaving sinful rebellion and a commitment to obedience. As for the enhanced ontological state it bequeaths unto those nearest to God, it is the keen perception of God through the inner vision of their hearts. This necessitates magnifying and upholding the majesty of the Most Majestic. These two fruits were indicated by the Messenger of God, peace upon him and his family, when he said, “Excellence in religion is that you worship God as if you see Him, and if you fail to see Him, verily He sees you.”

His saying, “.. .that you worship God as if you see Him” indicates the second fruit. This is the inner vision of the heart, which necessitates exalting the greatness of God. This is like the state of one who sees a mighty worldly king. He necessarily exalts him. As for his saying,”…and if you fail to see Him, verily  He sees you”  it indicates the first fruit, which means if you are not amongst those possessing heart-vision, be of the people of shyness, which is the station of the Companions of the right hand.

When he (the Prophet, peace upon him) began explaining excellence in religion by mentioning the loftiest station, he realized that many people would fall short of this station. Therefore, he mentioned another station.

You should know that awareness of God’s observation will not be properly attained until it is preceded by Musharata, Murabata, and then followed up with Muhasaba and Mu’aqaba. As for Musharata, it is the servant making it conditional for himself to be consistently obedient and to avoid all sins. As for Murabata, it is his entering into a covenant with his Lord to do that. After these two, he begins to be aware of God’s observation from the beginning to the end of his affair. After this he engages in Muhasaba by taking himself to account concerning his fidelity in implementing the conditions and the covenant he has placed over himself.

If he finds that he has been faithful in fulfilling that which he has convened with God, He praises Him. If he finds that he has failed to fulfill the condition(s), and has breeched the covenant, he engages in Mu’aqaba by rebuking himself so strongly that it discourages him from ever breeching the covenant again. He then repeats this process over and over until he meets God, Most High.


The Prophet, peace be upon him, is related to have said, “Whoever is sincere with God for forty days he will speak from the fountains of wisdom that will spring from his heart.”

Know that every intellect not characterized by three things is a source of treachery: It prefers obedience to sin; it prefers knowledge to ignorance; and it prefers religion to the world.

Ibn ‘Abbas mentioned that there was no verse in the Qur’an that was weightier on the Prophet, peace upon him, than the following, “Be consistently upright as you have been commanded.” (11:112)

The essence of this path is captured by Imam Nawawi in his litany when he states, “In the Name of God, with God, from God, to God, [relying] upon God, and through God, there is no strength or power except with God.”

meaning thereafter, “thumma,” indicates the lapsing of a considerable period of time. In other words, consistent uprightness in religion does not occur in an instant, but only after the lapsing of a considerable period of time. It is here that consistency comes into play. One has to slowly but steadily build a reality of righteousness. If our spiritual transformation comes too suddenly, then in an likelihood it is neither real nor deep.


You should know that when the knowledge of the intelligent person is sound and his certitude is firm he knows that nothing will save him from his Lord except truthfulness. He therefore strives diligently in its quest and searches for the characteristics of its people, longing to know true life before his death, in order to prepare for the abode of permanence after his passing. Therefore, he sells his soul and his wealth to his Lord having heard Him say, “Verily, God has purchased from the believers their souls and their wealth and for that they will have Paradise.” (9:111)

Excessive food leads to greed and artificial needs.
The more we eat, the more we feel we have to eat.  This schedule only institutionalizes a series of artificial needs and cements our essential greed.


Excessive clothing leads to boasting and ostentatious behavior.


Prophet, peace upon him said, “Ruined is the worshiper of clothing.”

The foundation of the spiritual path is emptying out (takhliya) and then adorning (tahliya) the heart.

Ibn Rajab-Hanbali states: rectification for the heart until gnosis is firmly established in it, along with the exaltation His reverence, appreciation of His less, hoping for His mercy, total reliance on Him, and then the heart being filled with those qualities. This is real monotheism. This is the meaning of “There is no god but God.”


God has created for each limb a command and a prohibition as a binding obligation. He has created between these two a space for permissible actions. Leaving that space is a laudable virtue for the servant.

He says in a divine hadith, “I am as my servant thinks of Me.” Imam Shawkani mentions in this regard: his is an encouragement from God to His servants that they have a good opinion of Him, for He will rear them based on their opinion of Him. One who has a good opinion of Him will find the copious abundance of His goodness deluging him. He will send down on him the beauty of His graces, shower him with the beautiful manifestations of His generosity, and bestow upon him unprecedented gifts.

He also said, peace upon him, “Verily, truth comes emanating light, it is thus incumbent upon you to guard the inner sanctums of the heart.”

The origin of this hadith is unknown.

Ibn Mas’ud mentioned: “The hearts have times when they are amenable to worship, and other times when they are languid, take advantage or the times of amenability, and avoid the times of languidness.

[Abdullah] bin Mubarak mentioned, “The heart is like a mirror, if it is left sitting in your hand it will rust. It is also like a domesticated animal, if it is neglected by its owner it will become enfeebled.”

The Messenger of God, peace upon him, mentioned to Mu’adh bin Jabal, “Are people thrown into Hell and then dragged on their faces for anything other than the harvest of their tongues?”

The Prophet, peace be upon him, said, “I warn you against excessive speech. What meets your needs suffices you. Surely, a man will be asked about his excessive speech just as he will be asked about his excessive wealth. The Prophet, peace upon him, mentioned, “God is present at the tongue of every speaker. Therefore, let a person be mindful of God and know well everything he utters.”‘

Abu Darda said, “Whoever avoids the forbidden gaze. God will wed him to any of the wide-eyed maidens of Paradise that he chooses; and whoever peeks from rooftops, God will render him blind on the Day of Resurrection.’

Dawud al-Ta’i said to a man who was glaring back at someone staring at him, “Avert your gaze, for it has reached me that a man will be asked about his superfluous glance just as he will be asked about his superfluous actions.’

(99:4-5) The Prophet, peace upon him, asked a group of his Companions, after reciting the above mentioned verse, “Do you know what her (the Earth’s) news is?” They replied, “”God and His Messenger know best.” He said, “Her news is that she will bear witness for or against every servant, male or female regarding what they did on her surface. She will say, ‘On such and such day he/she did so and so.’ This is her news.”

Qasim bin Muhammad bin Abu Bakr was asked about sensuous singing and he replied, “When God separates between truth and falsehood on the Day of Resurrection, where will sensuous singing end up?” It was said, “With falsehood.” He then said, “Then seek a verdict from yourself”

There is no appendage more damaging to the servant, after his tongue, than his ears, because they are the fastest messenger to the heart, and the quickest to surrender temptation. It has been related from Waki’ bin Jarrah, “I heard something from an innovator twenty years ago. and I have not yet been able to expel it from my ears.’ Whenever an innovator came to Tawus he would cover his ears to avoid hearing his speech.

The obligation governing smell follows that of hearing and vision. Everything that it is lawful for you to listen )r to look at, it is permissible for you to smell. It is related that some musk was brought to ‘Umar bin ‘Abdul ‘Aziz. He pinched his nose He was asked about that and replied, “Is it benefited from in any way other than its fragrance?”



“How can smelling something be considered forbidden?” We could mention carrion, feces, urine, alcohol, tobacco, etc. Similarly, many carcinogens are known to emit foul odors, as anyone living in the vicinity of a refinery, or other industries known to produce carcinogenic waste can attest to.

The obligation of the hands and feet is that they are indeed towards something forbidden, and that they are never closed from engaging the truth. Masruq said, “No servant takes a single step except that it is recorded as a good or an evil deed.” The daughter of Sulayman bin Abdul Malik wrote to Abdah the daughter of Khalid bin Ma’dan, asking that she visit her. Abdah wrote back, “My father used to dislike traveling anywhere that he could not guarantee before God as being for a lawful purpose, or to eat anything I whose lawfulness he could not establish on the Day of Judgment. I dislike what my father disliked. Peace be upon you.

Imam al-Marwardi expresses this situation beautifully in Adah al-Dunya w’ al-Din:
Only the unthinking are ignorant of the virtue of knowledge. This is so because the virtue of knowledge is only known through knowledge. This [fact] only accentuates its virtue all the more for its virtue is only realized through its possession. When the unthinking ick the knowledge necessary to arrive at an1 understanding of its virtue, they naturally are ignorant of that virtue. They therefore debase its possessors and think that what their [own] souls incline towards of acquired wealth and prized novelties are justifiably striven for and more fitting to be preoccupied with.

Therefore, work diligently to reform your state, acknowledge your need for your Lord, and rise above  entertaining doubtful matters. Decrease your dependency love for them what you love for yourself, and hate for them what you hate for yourself.

Never consider any sin to be insignificant, never divulge a secret, never reveal what God has concealed, never contemplate committing a sin, and never persistently commit a minor transgression.

One of the sages mentioned, “There are no minor sins if they are persistently engaged in and there are no major sins if they are eradicated by repentance.”

Luqman was asked, “How did you obtain to the virtue we observe in you? He replied, “Truthful speech, conveying what I am entrusted with, and leaving what does not concern me.”

Do not respond to anyone’s wickedness in kind.

Our limited powers and faculties lead us to think that responding to evil with kindness will lead to disastrous results, Is the reward for good ever anything other than good? (55:60)

Hide your pain, be chaste, internalize trust, be aware of the inability of people to help you, let poverty be a form of protection, be patient in dealing with afflictions, be content with what God has allotted you, and be absolutely attain concerning God’s promise and apprehensive of His threat.

Imam Ghazali lakes a powerful statement in The Revival of the Religious Sciences one should only sit with a scholar that calls you from five things to five things: “From doubt to certitude; from dissemblance to sincerity; from worldly longing to worldly abstinence; from arrogance to humility; and from enmity towards people to extending to them sincere advice.”

Do not hold back anything from God in your devotional acts. Do not allow your soul to be pleased with an action that should have been undertaken solely for God. Stand before God in prayer with your entire being.

“One denied gentleness has been denied all good. Muslim, no. 2592.

Umm Kulthum, n, in which she states, “I only heard the Prophet, peace be upon him, permit people to deviate from the truth in three circumstances: War; reforming relations between people; and the slight distortions of the truth engaged in between husbands and wives [to maintain domestic tranquility}.

It is related that Imam Ali said, “Be more concerned with the acceptability of your action than you are with the action itself. Have you not heard, ‘Rather, God only accepts from the pious.’ (5:27)


Subhana kallahumma wa bihamdika ash-haduana la illaha illa ant astaghfiruka wa atubu ilayk, ameen.


Responses

  1. Jazakallah khair for sharing this with us all!

  2. […] – Selections from Risala al-Mustarshideen […]

  3. assalam alaikum. I have enjoyed it a great deal. and i THINK i HAVE PROFITED FROM THESE ADVICES A LOT


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