Posted by: Dawud Israel | October 18, 2014

Unlocking the Honorific Titles in the Qur’an and Hadith

The following are some bookmarked notes and excerpts I’ve picked up while reading different tafsirs online that explain how we can earn these honorific titles. We have many hollow man-made titles and honorifics, but what do they compare to the honorifics of the Eternal Qur’an? Imagine: if we try and act on even one of these, maybe Allah will call us by that Qur’anic title on the Day of Judgment and in Jannah, insha-Allah.

The sources for this are Ma’ariful Qur’an, Tafsir al-Tustari, and Tafsir Ibn Kathir to combine the classical early mufassirun and the insights of the awliya.

Waf-fa

Meaning loyal, faithfully fulfilling his covenant, referring to Ibrahim alayhis-salam discussed in Surah Najm in Ma’ariful Qur’an:

Ibn Abi Hatim hadith via Muadh ibn Anas: “Do you know why Allah gave Ibrahim the title al-ladhi waffa? Then he said, Because he used to recite the following dhikr every morning and evening:

(fa subhanallahi hina tumsuni wa hina tusbihun…wa kadhalika tukhrajun) from Surah Rum, v.17-19

“He fulfilled the day’s work by starting it with the performance of 4 rak’at (salat-ul ishraq). (Hadith via Abu Umama)

Ahwa’an Haleem

Ahwa’an haleem – 9:114, Qurtubi says awwah, it means one who sighs a lot (saying “ah ah” as a dhikr), supplicates much or as Abdullah ibn Mas’ud says one who is given to mercy for servants of Allah.

Mustaghfirina bi’l as-haar

“And who pray for forgiveness in the early hours of the morning” (3:17) refers to those who ask forgiveness before Fajr time during Suhur time. This time dua is accepted and beloved because it is the time of day Rasulullah (salallahu alayhi wasalam) was born.

Awwab and Hafiz 

Surah Qaf in Ma’ariful Qur’an:

Awwab, someone who turns to Allah in repentance, according to Abdullah ibn Mas’ud, Sha’bi, Mujahid refers to someone who recalls his sins in loneliness, private and secret, and seeks forgiveness, Ubaid ibn Umair said Awwab is one who seeks Allah’s forgiveness of his sins in every sitting

(See Duas after every sitting: subhana kallahumma wa bihamdika la illaha illant astaghfiruka wa atubu ilayk and subhanallahi wa bihamdihi allahumma inni astaghfiruka mimma asabtu fi majlisi hadhi–for repentance for evil done in a sitting or a gathering)

[17:25] …If you are righteous, then truly He is Forgiving to those who keep turning [to Him] in repentance.

Ibn al-Musayyib said: ‘The one who turns again and again in penitence (awwāb) is the one who sins, then repents, then sins, then repents, and dies in a state of repentance’. Ḥasan al-Baṣrī said, ‘The awwāb is the penitent who repents without delay.7 Indeed he is ready (muhayyaʾ) for repentance at every instant and moment.’ It was related on the authority of Ḍamra b. Ḥabīb that the Prophet (salallahu alayhi wasalam)  said: ‘He for whom a door to goodness has been opened should seize [the opportunity] as he does not know when it will close on him.’ This means that he should seriously consider his present moment (waqt) and not procrastinate. (Tafsir al-Tustari)

Hafiz according of Ibn Abbas is one who remembers his sins so returns to Allah and make amends, another report that he remembers his covenant with Allah and doesn’t betray it.

Whoever performs 4 rakat Ishraq early in the day is Awwab and Hafiz (Qurtubi via Abu Hurayra)

Qalbin Munib 

Wa jaha bi qalbin munib” — Abu Bakr Warraq says munib is he always maintains respect for Allah and humbles himself to Him and gives up his sensual and base desires

Abdun Munib

[50:8] As an insight and a reminder for every penitent servant.

He said:

This means: ⸢as a lesson and source of evidence, guiding them to believe in the oneness of their Lord and to show gratitude to Him;⸣2 penitent (munīb), that is, one who devotes his heart purely to God by turning his attention [wholly] to Him,3 and by maintaining God’s remembrance (dhikr) in the practice of his obligatory duties (wājibāt).

Sa’imun

«وَالصَّوْمُ زَكَاةُ الْبَدَن»

(Fasting is the Zakah of the body.) In other words, it purifies it and cleanses it of things that are bad in both physical and Shar`i terms. Sa`id bin Jubayr said: “Whoever fasts Ramadan and three days of each month, is included in the Ayah,

“the men and the women who fast” (Qur’an, 33:35)

Dhakirina wa Dhakiraat

“and the men and the women who remember Allah much” in 33:35, Ibn Abi Hatim recorded that Abu Sa`id Al-Khudri, may Allah be pleased with him, said that the Messenger of Allah said:

«إِذَا أَيْقَظَ الرَّجُلُ امْرَأَتَهُ مِنَ اللَّيْلِ فَصَلَّيَا رَكْعَتَيْنِ كُتِبَا تِلْكَ اللَّيْلَةَ مِنَ الذَّاكِرِينَ اللهَ كَثِيرًا وَالذَّاكِرَات»

“If a man wakes his wife at night and they pray two Rak`ahs, they will recorded that night as being among the men and the women who remember Allah much.” (Abu Dawud, Nasa’i, Ibn Maja)

Sayyidan Hasuran 

Abu Al-`Aliyah, Ar-Rabi` bin Anas, Qatadah and Sa`id bin Jubayr said that Allah’s statement about Yahya alayhi-salam

And “Sayyidan” means, a wise man. Ibn `Abbas, Ath-Thawri and Ad-Dahhak said that Sayyidan means, “The noble, wise and pious man.’‘ Sa`id bin Al-Musayyib said that Sayyid is the scholar and Faqih. `Atiyah said that Sayyid is the man noble in behavior and piety. `Ikrimah said that it refers to a person who is not overcome by anger, while Ibn Zayd said that it refers to the noble man. Mujahid said that Sayyidan means, honored by Allah.

“And Hasuran” does not mean he refrains from sexual relations with women, but that he is immune from illegal sexual relations.

Sa’ihun

9:112 : saihunna, siyaha — for us it is fasting (Ibn Abbas), or journeying for knowledge (Ikrimah) or fighting (the monasticism of my ummah is fighting in way of God — (Ibn Majah, Bayhaqi) mentioned in Tafsir Ma’ariful Quran

Khashiyun

As mentioned in Surah al-Muminun as pertaining to in salah, khashiyun — Mujahid said: casting one’s eyes down, voice low. Ali said refrain from casting sideways glances obliquely. Ata’ said not toying with any part of the body. Abu Dharr hadith via Mazhari: “Allah keeps an eye over His servant during prayers so long as he concentrates his attention on Allah, but when he turns his attention elsewhere and glances obliquely sideways, Allah also turns away from him.” Hadith Reported to have told Anas to keep his eyes fixed at spot which he touched his forehead with when performing sajdah. “If he had khushu in his heart, his body and limbs would have remained calm.” (Hadith)

Siddiq/Siddiqa

My understanding of this is that Yusuf, Maryam and Abu Bakr are mentioned by sidq. The commonality among them is they spoke the truth when it was difficult. Yusuf alayhi-salam spoke of Allah when Zulayka tried to seduce him, Maryam was also accused of committing zina but she was truthful in pointing to her son Isa alayhi-salam, and Abu Bakr when interrogated about Isra wa’l Miraj said, “In-qala, If he said it, fa qad sadaqt, I believe it. I believe in something more miraculous than this that he received wahi from the heavens.”

ʿAbd al-Wāḥid b. Zayd said:

Veracity (ṣidq) is being faithful (wafāʾ) to God in your act[s].

Sahl al-Tustari was asked about veracity and said:

Veracity is fear concerning [our] end (khātima), and patience (ṣabr) is the proof [lit. witness (shāhid)] of veracity. Truly, veracity is hard for the veracious (ṣiddīqūn), sincerity (ikhlāṣ) is hard for the sincere (mukhliṣūn), and repentance (tawba) is hard for the repentant (tāʾibūn), for these three require [extraordinary] exertion of the spirit (badhl al-rūḥ).

Aḥmad b. Mattā was asked about its meaning [ṣidq] and said:

It is that there no longer remains a share for a person’s lower self.

Sahl said:

No one will get a whiff of the fragrance of veracity as long as he panders to his lower self or to others. Rather, veracity is that a person feels in his innermost secret (sirr) that there is no one on the face of the earth from whom God has demanded servanthood besides him. Furthermore, his hope is his fear, and his fear is [of] his demise (intiqāl).  Then when God, Exalted is He, sees them [the veracious] in this state, He takes upon himself the care of their affairs (tawallā umūrahum) and suffices for them (kafāhum), and every hair on their bodies speaks [as one] with God (maʿa’Llāh) in gnosis (maʿrifa). Thereafter God, Exalted is He, says to them on the Day of Judgement, ‘For whom did you work, and what did you desire?’ They will reply, ‘We worked for You, and You alone did we desire.’ He will say to them, ‘You have spoken the truth.’ And by His Might, His words of testimony affirming their veracity are a greater source of joy to them than the bliss of Paradise.

Aḥmad b. Mattā was asked about the meaning of his [Sahl’s] saying, ‘that the hope of veracity is his fear, and that his fear is [of] his demise (intiqāl).’ He said:

It is because veracity (ṣidq) is their hope and what they seek, but they fear that they are not veracious in their quest (ṭalab), so that God will not accept it from them. He has said regarding this: and [those] who give what they give while their hearts tremble [with awe] [23:60], meaning that they are in trepidation while doing acts of obedience, for fear that they will suffer rejection. (Tafsir al-Tustari)

The above meaning fits well with 33:8: “That He may question the truthful about their truth. And He has prepared for the disbelievers a painful punishment.”

For more ideas on Sidq

May Allah grant us the reality of these righteous titles.

Subhana kallahumma wa bihamdika ash-haduana la illaha illa Ant astaghfiruka wa atubu ilayk, ameen.


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